The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of H. pylori infection in adult inhabitants of Lublin Province. The effects of living conditions and lifestyle on the infection frequency were evaluated. The study included 585 adults randomly chosen for the epidemiological analysis of H. pylori infection in the Lublin region within the project commissioned by the Ministry of Health (PCZ 08-09) and State Committee for Scientific Research (C007/P05/2000). The study was based on a personal questionnaire and determinations of anti/Hp antibodies in IgG class using the ELISA method. High titres of anti/Hp antibodies (> 24 IU/ml) were demonstrated in 78.5 % of the subjects. In Lublin Province the infected individuals constitute 72 % of inhabitants, in the big towns--74 % and in small towns--95 %. According to the place of birth: among those born in the country 87 % are infected, compared to 78.4 % in the small towns and 64 % in the big towns, respectively. Positive test results were observed in 79 % of farmers, 78 % of manual workers and 75 % of mental workers. The percentage of the affected neglecting basic hygienic rules exceeded 90 %. With increased frequency of hygienic measures the number of the H. pylori infected individuals decreased to 65 %. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among the inhabitants of the Lublin region is lower than that found in town inhabitants. Lublin Province shows the lowest level of H. pylori infection in Poland. The H. pylori infection is strongly affected by the lack of basic rules of personal hygiene and improper diet.