This manuscript reports results of our study to characterize the historicaldevelopments of agricultural practices in The Gambia and related health risks of farm workers. It surveysthe various factors that shape production agriculture in the country and examines the degrees to whichhand tools, animal traction, motorized traction and manual labour all contribute to the inherent hazardsof farm work. The principal objective of this study is to lay the ground work for detailed research ofoccupational health hazards in Gambian agriculture; and development of policies and programmes to promotethe health of Gambian farmers. The authors of this paper assume the belief that one must first understandthe industry and its people before effective policies and programmes can be developed. The study concludesby highlighting the need for the integration of epidemiological investigations in the country's agriculturalresearch programme.