The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of peptic ulcer among rural population in various regions of Poland and to analyse the conditions influencing the prevalence of the disease. For organizational reasons, the division of the territory of Poland into eight regions was adopted for the study. The study covered a representative group of 6,512 rural inhabitants, comprising 3,107 males (47.7%) and 3405 women (52.3%), aged 20-64, selected by two-stage stratified sampling. At the first stage of the study all health centres (3,286) were classified into 150 groups and in each group two prevention-treatment regions were selected by means of stratified sampling. The second-stage samples were selected based on communes where the health centres classified for the study were located. People selected for the study were subject to examinations which covered: a specially designed questionnaire form, detailed physical examination, and the necessary specialist tests. The obtained results were recorded in a questionnaire form, which additionally contained questions concerning detailed demographic and social data, hazardous factors present in the working environment, as well as data pertaining to housing conditions, nutrition and habits. Among the rural population under study, peptic ulcer was found in 8.0% of males and 2.9% of females, gastric ulcer was observed in 1.2% of people under study, duodenal ulcer - in 3.2%, gastric and duodenal ulcer - in 0.2%, whereas patients who underwent surgical procedures due to peptic ulcer constituted 0.7% of respondents. Territorial differences were noted in the prevalence of peptic ulcer among Polish rural population. The highest peptic ulcer incidence rates were observed in Macroregion I (western Poland) - where the disease was diagnosed in 7.2% of people under study (Northern Region - 8.1%, Southern Region - 7.4%, and South-Western Region - 6.4%), while the lowest rates were noted in Macroregion II (central and eastern Poland), where peptic ulcer occurred among 4.7% of respondents (South-Eastern Region - 4.4%, North-Eastern Region - 4.5%, Middle-Eastern Region - 4.7%, Middle- Western Region - 4.8%, and Central Region - 5.1%). In regions where the highest incidence rates were noted, the greatest numbers of divorcees, widows and widowers were observed. An analysis by occupational groups showed that in these regions there were more unskilled and skilled workers, employees of services, and the largest number of people performed non-agricultural occupations. Cigarette smoking habit was also more prevalent in these regions.