The aim of this study was to assess and compare the frequencies of uveitis etiology in inhabitants of rural and urban areas of mid-eastern Poland. We reviewed the cases of 563 patients (263 males, 300 females; aged 2-87) with uveitis, treated at the 1st Department of Ophthalmology at the Medical Academy in Lublin and at the District Ophthalmic Hospital in Kielce, Poland, from January 1996-December 2000. Anatomical classification of uveitis was used according to the International Uveitis Study Group and etiological classification including uveitis associated with trauma, infection, systemic disease, non-associated with a systemic disease and masquerade syndromes. Data regarding age, gender, place of residence, anatomical location and etiology of uveitis were obtained. Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's chi-square test, Spearman's rank correlation test and logistic regression. Etiology of uveitis was established in 70.0% of cases. The most common cause of uveitis was infection. Patients from rural areas were significantly more likely to have uveitis of infectious origin whereas patients from urban areas significantly more likely to have uveitis associated with a systemic disease. In conclusion, the pattern of uveitis in mid-eastern Poland confirms the influence of environmental factors on the etiology of this heterogenous disease.