The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the prevalence of peptic ulcer and the occurrence of selected socio-economic features among Polish rural population. The study was conducted based on the all- Polish representative study of the state of health of rural population, and covered a group of 6,512 rural inhabitants aged 20-64 -- 3,107 males and 3,405 females selected by two-stage stratified sampling. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed in 348 people in the study (5.3%): 250 males (8.0%) and 98 females (2.9%). Duodenal ulcer occurred in 3.2% of people examined, followed by gastric ulcer -- 1.2%, duodenal and gastric ulcer -- 0.2%, and 0.9% of patients underwent surgical procedures due to peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcer occurred more frequently among people with a lower education level (lack of education -- 7.8%, elementary school education -- 5.8%), compared to those with higher education categories (elementary vocational -- 4.9%, secondary school and college -- 3.7%). The disease was more often diagnosed among respondents who described their material standard as poor (7.7%), compared to those who described this standard as good (4.0%). Among people who considered their material standard as poor, gastric ulcer was noted more frequently than duodenal ulcer. A correlation was observed between the prevalence of peptic ulcer and such socio-economic features of Polish rural population as the level of education and material standard.