Osteoporosis risk factors in rural and urban women from the Lublin Region ofPoland.
Rafał S Filip 1, Jerzy Zagórski 2 1 - Department of Bone Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin,Poland. email@example.com 2 - Ann Agric Environ Med 2005; 12 (1): ICID: 420263
In various epidemiological and clinical studies, bone quality, bone mineraldensity (BMD), as well as risk of falling have been associated with lifestyle and anthropometric/demographiccharacteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteoporosis risk factors occurrenceand its association with BMD in rural and urban women from the Lublin Region in Poland. A cross-sectionalstudy of risk factors of osteoporosis and fracture was carried out in a cohort of 900 rural and urbanwomen aged 30-79 years, representative of the general population the Lublin Region. Data pertaining toosteoporosis risk factors as well as medical history were taken using a specially designed 31 item questionnairedivided in seven sections: social history, past medical history, reproductive history, drug history,family history of osteoporosis, nutritional habits and lifestyle factors. The lumbar spine (L(2)-L(4))was examined in a-p position using the dual X-ray absorptiometry- DXA (LUNAR Corp.). The differencesbetween urban and rural women in the appearance of particular osteoporosis risk factors, such as gynecological,dietary calcium intake, smoking and coffee consumption, was noticeable. Age, years of menopause and familyhistory of osteoporosis (in mothers) were found to have strong negative independent associations withlumbar spine BMD. Body Mass Index (BMI) was found to have strong positive association with BMD. Dietarycalcium intake, coffee consumption and level of physical activity had noticeable positive and independent,but not significant association with BMD.