Agricultural work is considered to be a major risk factor for occupationaldiseases. In particular, allergic reactions to cow dander cause numerous cases of airway disorders. Wemeasured the concentration of allergens (e.g. Bos d2, Der p1) and endotoxin in the stables, living-roomsand mattresses of 46 farmers with a diagnosis of occupational asthma or allergic rhinitis caused by cowdander allergen. The concentration of cow dander allergen was highest in stables (median 20,400 microg/g)but also noticeable in dust samples from living-rooms (median 155 microg/g) and mattresses (median 195microg/g). The sensitization threshold (20-50 microg/g) was exceeded in most cases. Thus, allergen transportfrom the stables to bed must be prevented by optimizing the hygiene of farmers and family members.