Introduction and objective. Screening colonoscopy is a recommended tool, and the most sensitive and cost-effective method for reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Objective. The purpose of the study was to present the results of a 5-year screening for early detection of CRC carried out among the population of the central-eastern regions of Poland, primarily in Lublin Province. Materials and method. Screening colonoscopy was conducted in a group of 1,009 patients – 636 women and 373 men, aged 40–65 years. Results. Neoplastic polyps were found in 275 patients, advanced adenomas in 49 patients and adenocarcinoma in 13. 70.55% of neoplastic polyps was located in the distal colon, 18.9% in the proximal part and 10.55% in both regions, advanced adenomas in 79.59%, 8.16% and 12.25%, respectively. Adenocarcinoma was located in the proximal colon in 2 cases and in the distal region in 11 cases. Neoplastic polyps and advanced adenomas occurred significantly more frequently in smokers than in non-smokers. Neoplastic polyps were found statistically more frequent in males than in females, among the overweight and obese patients, than in subjects with normal BMI, and more frequently in the group of urban, compared to rural patients. However, the frequency of advanced adenomas and CRC was not statistically different in those groups. The incidence of CRC was statistically more frequent in males than in females. Smoking and male gender were significant risk factors for developing neoplastic polyps. Male gender seemed to predispose to CRC. Obesity was found to favour advanced adenomas. Conclusions. The results of screening found neoplastic polyps in every third person (mean) who did not have any symptoms suggestive of colon pathology. Advanced adenomas were found in 5% of the examined and CRC was detected in 1.29% of participants. Smoking, male gender and overweight were significant risk factors for developing neoplastic polyps. No correlation was found between gender and the location of neoplastic polyps and advanced adenomas in the colon.