Are cognitive functions in post-menopausal women related with the contents of macro- and micro-components in the diet?
Iwona Bojar 1, Anna Wierzbińska-Stępniak 2, Mariusz Witczak 3, Dorota Raczkiewicz 4, Alfred Owoc 3 1 - Department for Health Problems of Ageing, Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland 2 - St. John Independent Public Regional Hospital, Lublin, Poland 3 - College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland 4 - Institute of Statistics and Demography, School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland Ann Agric Environ Med 2015; 22 (1): ICID: 1141391 Article type: Original article
The objective of the study was an evaluation of the relationship between the level of cognitive functions and contents of micro- and macro-components in the diet of postmenopausal women. A group of 402 women was recruited to the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation, FSH concentration 30 U/ml and no dementia signs on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A computerized battery of the Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnose cognitive functions. The dietary questionnaire was evaluated based on observation of a seven-day diet. The data obtained were introduced into the database and analyzed using computer software DIETICIAN. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical software STATISTICA. Results. The results of the study concerning diet unequivocally indicate a very poor quality of diet in the group of postmenopausal women examined. The daily diet had a too high energetic value. The women consumed an excessive amount of total fat, including definitely too much monounsaturated fatty acids, and insufficient polyunsaturated fatty acids. The dietary intake of sodium and phosphorus was too high, whereas deficiencies were observed in the consumption of iron, copper, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc. No significant correlations were found in the analysis of cognitive functions according to the energetic value of daily diet and contents of macro- and micro-components. The results concerning verbal memory significantly depended on the daily intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Women who consumed polyunsaturated fatty acids below the daily normal or normal level obtained significantly higher results in verbal memory.
DOI: 10.5604/12321966.1141391 PMID 25780851 - click here to show this article in PubMed