Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor
Konrad Małkiewicz 1, Jadwiga Turło 2, Anna Marciniuk-Kluska 3, Kinga Grzech-Leśniak 4, Magdalena Gąsior 4, Mariusz Kluska 5 1 - Department of Orthodontics, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland 2 - Department of Drug Technology and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland 3 - Faculty of Management, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland 4 - Lubuski College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland 5 - Institute of Chemistry, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland Ann Agric Environ Med 2015; 22 (1): ICID: 1141390 Article type: Original article
Introduction. Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances requires the application of adhesive systems to enable secure fastening of brackets and retainers to the surface of tooth enamel. The orthodontic bonding systems are similar in terms of chemical composition to dental filling materials, the chemical stability of which is not satisfactory. Particularly alarming is the release of bisphenol A and its derivatives to the external environment, which has been well-documented for materials used in conservative dentistry. Objectives. The aim of the study was an in vitro assessment of the release of biologically harmful bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesives available on the European market, as a potential health risk factor for orthodontic patients. Material and methods. The study assessed levels of BPA, BPA polymers and Bis-GMA resin in eluates of six commonly used orthodontic adhesives: Light Bond, Transbond XT, Resilence, Aspire, GrĕnGloo and ConTec LC, obtained after one hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 31 days of material sample storage in water. The presence and concentration of the studied chemicals in the obtained solutions were identified using the HPLC method. Results. The highest (p≤0.05) concentration of BPA at 32.10µg/ml was observed in the Resilence material eluates. The highest concentration of poly-bisphenol A was found in solutions obtained after incubation of ConTec LC adhesive at 371.90µg/ml, whereas the highest amount of Bis-GMA resin (425.07µg/ml) was present in Aspire material eluates. Conclusions. 1) In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment – biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients’ health. 2) Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the early stages of sample incubation.
DOI: 10.5604/12321966.1141390 PMID 25780850 - click here to show this article in PubMed