Rafał Gorczyca 1, Rafał Filip 2, Ewa Walczak 2 1 - Department of Public Health, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
2 - Department of Clinical Endoscopy, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland Ann Agric Environ Med 2013; 0 (1): ICID: 1101580 Article type: Original article
Introduction. Pain is defined “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage”. Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient’s caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects.
Objective. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment.
State of knowledge. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems.
Depression and related psychical disorders. There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms – both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry.
Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used showed that pain catastrophizing, independent of the influence of depression, was significantly associated with increased activity in brain areas related to anticipation of pain, attention to pain, emotional
aspects of pain and motor control. Pain behaviour is a conditioned pain. Care and concern on the part of others, secondarily enhance a patient’s pain behaviours, which lead to an increase in the intensity of the pain experienced. A history of early life adversity (ELA) – rejection, neglect, physical or sexual abuse is related to the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. Ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity.
Imaging of the human brain in chronic pain. Acute pain and chronic pain are encoded in different regions of the brain. Chronic pain can be considered a driving force that carves cortical anatomy and physiology, creating the chronic pain brain/ mind state.
Cognitive-behavioural methods of pain treatment in domains of pain experience, cognitive coping and appraisal (positive coping measures), and reduced pain experience are effective in reducing pain in patients
PMID 25000837 - click here to show this article in PubMed