Leptospirosis – current risk factors connected with human activity and the environment

Bernard Wasiński 1, Jacek Dutkiewicz 2
1 - Department of Hygiene of Food of Animal Origin, National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland
2 - Department of Zoonoses, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med
2013; 20 (2):
ICID: 1052323
Article type: Review article
 
 
Leptospirosis is a widespread although recently neglected zoonosis recognized worldwide. The disease seems to be underestimated, especially in countries located in the temperate climatic zone. The presented article concerns the main characteristics of leptospirosis and describes formerly known and recently observed environmental, occupational and recreational risk factors significant in the spreading and pathogenesis of the disease. The aspects of epidemiology significant in the temperate climatic zone are emphasized. The majority of cited articles present cases of the disease reported from Europe or North America. Climatic changes (warming) and extreme weather events such as floods are potential risk factors of leptospirosis. Also, some socio-economic phenomena, such as the intensive migration of people resulting in the transfer of the infections acquired in tropical countries, or worsening of economic status in the cities, increase the probability of disease. Apart from the danger connected with rodents, which are the main vectors of leptospires, occurrence of the disease in dogs and cats can generate a higher risk of infection for humans. Infections may also be acquired during various types of agricultural work and during recreational activities, such as swimming. The results of recent investigations show that ticks are also potential vectors of leptospires. The more frequent emergence of leptospirosis in countries located in the temperate climatic zone emphasize the need to verify knowledge related to the risk of its appearance, and to consider this disease during diagnostic processes.
PMID 23772568 - click here to show this article in PubMed
  FULL TEXT STATS

Recommend this article to:

Name:
E-mail:
From:
Language:


Related articles in IndexCopernicus™
     risk factors [51 related records]
     epidemiology, [28 related records]
     Leptospirosis [1 related records]



 

Related articles

,
SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INF...
The availability of baseline information on the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other associated risk behaviors is essential for designing, implementing, and monitoring successful targeted interventions. The aim of the pres...
ABSTRACT
M Naghshvarian, M Kaveh,
Epidemiologic Study of Suicidal Attempt Cases in F...
Abstract Background: The reduction of suicidal attempts as one of the most important goals is improvement of societies’ health status. The present study aimed to assess the epidemiologic aspects of suicide cases in Fars province in 2010-2011. ...
ABSTRACT
A Eslami, M Saghi,
Assessment of background gamma radiation and deter...
Background: Background gamma radiation levels vary in different locations and depended on many factors such as radiation properties of soil, building materials as well as construction types which human lives on it. People are always exposed to ionizi...
ABSTRACT