Effect of menopausal hormone therapy on the levels of magnesium, zinc, lead and cadmium in post-menopausal women
Anna Jurczak 1, Jacek Brodowski 2, Elżbieta Grochans 3, Beata Karakiewicz 4, Małgorzata Szkup-Jabłońska 1, Sylwia Wieder-Huszla 1, Bożena Mroczek 4, Anna Włoszczak-Szubzda 5, Anna Grzywacz 6 1 - Laboratory of Propaedeutics in Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland 2 - Laboratory of Primary Health Care, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland 3 - Laboratory of Propaedeutics in Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland 4 - Public Health Department, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland 5 - Department of Health Informatics and Statistics, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland; Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, University of Economics and Innovation, Lublin, Poland 6 - Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland Ann Agric Environ Med 2013; 20 (1): ICID: 1041689 Article type: Original article
Introduction and objective: The level of trace elements is extremely important for the maintenance of normal functioning of the human body. The risk of disturbance of their balance increases especially dynamically during the period of menopause. The objective of the study was the effect of MHT on the levels of bioelements (Mg and Zn) in blood plasma, and toxic metals (Pb and Cd) in the whole blood in postmenopausal women.
Materials and methods: The study covered 323 women at postmenopausal age from the population of the West Pomeranian Region, in whom the levels of Mg, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined. The women were divided into two groups: study and control. The study group were 152 women who used menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). The control group were 171 women who did not use MHT, and had had their final menstrual period at least one year prior to inclusion in the study. The mean age of the women examined was 56±5.
Results: Significantly higher levels of the bioelements Mg, Zn were observed in women who used MHT, compared to the control group (p<0.05). The concentration of Pb in whole blood was significantly lower in the study than the control group: 16.09±7.33 µg/l and 20.18±9.01 µg/l, respectively. An elevated level of Cd in whole blood was found in both groups of women: 0.9±1.03 µg/l and 0.8±1.1 µg/l, respectively. It was noted that women who used MHT more frequently declared the presence of climacteric symptoms (p<0.05).
Conclusions: 1) Higher levels of Mg and Zn were found in blood plasma of women who used MHT. 2) The mean concentration of Cd in the blood of women in both groups was similar. 3) In women who use MHT the level of Pb in whole blood was lower, compared to the rest of the women.
PMID 23540229 - click here to show this article in PubMed