Nicotinism and quality of embryos obtained in in-vitro fertilization programmes
Artur Wdowiak 1, Magdalena Lewicka 1, Krzysztof Plewka 2, Grzegorz Bakalczuk 1 1 - Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Obstetrical-Gynecological Nursing,Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Medical University, Lublin, Poland 2 - Non-Public Health Care Unit ‘Ovum Reproduction and Andrology’, Lublin, Poland Ann Agric Environ Med 2013; 20 (1): ICID: 1041678 Article type: Original article
Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, infertility is defined as the inability to conceive following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Cigarette smoking, alcohol and drugs are the main stimulants exerting a negative effect on the male and female reproductive organs.
Objective: The objective of the study was analysis of the effect of cigarette smoking by the women examined and their partners on the quality of embryos obtained in in vitro fertilization programmes.
Material and methods: The study covered 54 women treated due to infertility. The database and statistical analyses were performed by means of computer software STATISTICA 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland).
Results: The study showed that among 100% of the women examined, 24.07% smoked cigarettes. No statistically significant difference was observed between cigarette smoking by the women in the study (p=0.42), and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (p=0.52) and the total duration of smoking expressed in years (p=0.56). In addition, the study showed that 33.33% of respondents were exposed to passive nicotinism, while 66.67% were not exposed to passive smoking. In the group of women exposed to passive smoking, Class A embryos constituted 11.11%, Class B embryos – 83.38%, whereas Class C embryos – only 5.56%. A statistically significant relationship was noted between classes of embryos and exposure to passive nicotinism (p=0.03). Passive smoking results in the development of embryos of poorer quality. A significantly higher number of Class 2 embryos were produced from oocytes of women exposed to the effect of cigarette smoke, compared to Class 1. Among women at reproductive age, an active campaign should be carried out against nicotinism on behalf of their fertility and future maternity.
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